The history of Nepal begins from 9th century BC, when the Kirats were the first rulers of this country. For the centuries, Nepal remained divided into many principalities Kirats ruled in the east, the Newars in Kathmandu valley, while Gurungs and Magars had occupied the mid-west. Then, the Lichchhavis had conquered Kirats in first century AD and ruled until 9th century AD. During this period, art thrived in Nepal and many beautiful woodcarvings and sculptures that are found in the country is associated to this era. Subsequently, the Thakuris had conquered Lichchhavis in 9th century AD and ruled until 13th century.
Afterward, in 1200 AD, the Malla again had conquered Lichchavis, who also said to have contributed a lot to the art and culture of Nepal. The Mallas mainly focused in Kathmandu valley. Then, again the Shah dynasty reigned over the Mallas, as Prithvi Narayan Shah, the king of Gorkha conquered Malla rulers in Kathmandu valley along with other small principalities and recognizing the threat of British Raj in India he unified all the principalities into one kingdom.
During the mid-19th century, exercising the absolute power Jung Bahadur Rana had become the first Prime Minster of Nepal and continuously, the Rana families had ruled the country over one century. The Ranas were overthrown in a democracy movement of the early 1950s and Nepal enjoyed a multiparty democracy for about 10 years and again it went through one party (Panchyat) system and it enjoyed a multiparty democracy since 1990. Nepal now is a Federal Democratic Republic state, since it was declared to be federal republic on May 28, 2008 in the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly.